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   Disease  
 
           What is Disease

Dis is prefix for to be apart or to akin.
Ease is convenience, comfort.
Simply disease means to be apart from comfort or lack of ease.
The sense of losing comfort is sense of not feeling well.
Impairing in the normal functioning of an organism or body is disease.
Before crumbling in disease, there is array of function present in our body, which prevents system from breaking down.
This arrangement of body is referred as homeostasis.
Homeostasis is functional equilibrium in an organism.
There is a range of responses that is considered normal in cellular function.
If cells are pushed to respond beyond these limits, there may be an increase, or decrease, or a loss of normal structure or function.
These changes may be reversible or irreversible.
Distortion in feedback mechanism and homeostasis is disease.
The subcellular changes may be reflected in altered function of tissues, organs, and consequently organisms, and result in a condition described as disease.
If irreversible, the cells may die.
Disease causes dysfunction, distress, social problem or death.
Disease is a big social and economical threat to human population

 

Type of disease

 @ By location disease is classified in two groups,
 
Physical disease-

Physical disease is referred to impairment of functioning of a system or of organ, gland.

Psychological disease-

Psychological diseases are disturbed intellectual behavioral levels. Mental illness can refer to disorders in perception, understanding, emotion, and behavior, and can range from the milder psychological disorders and psychosomatic illness to the severe psychosis.

@ Classification of disease

In pretext with time/onset physical disease are classified as

 Acute disease

 Chronic disease

Another classification is in pretext with cause of disease

Genetic disease

Systemic disease

Infectious disease

Metabolic disease

Accidents/Trauma

 

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Causes of Disease

 

Any process or processes that change the normal set point of temperature, pressure and of nutrients of fluid surrounding cell or inside cell beyond control of homeostasis condition is cause of disease.
Temperature, pressure and of nutrients of fluid surrounding cell or inside cell remains
nearly constant by proper addition and removal of substances.
Cells need nutrients ions and oxygen in proper amount to grow and work.
Eating is process of supply of nutrients and ions in normal variable condition.
Factors that change the normal constituents of internal environments are

   @  Imbalance in addition:

Ignorance or unawareness in ingestion

1. Less eating and excess eating
2.
Untimely eating
3.
Unwholesome Eating
4.
Eating as per desire wish
5.
Drinking less water
6.
Liking of soft drink hard drink.

Thoughts or belief

1. Desire (longing)
2.
Greed (self-indulgence)
3.
Anger (rage)

 @ Imbalance in removal:

Insensible conduct and behavior

Hold back natural urges like urination, evacuation, tears, yawning, semen ejaculation, flatulence, vomiting, sneeze, burping and sleep.

Working condition

1.  Working in extremes of temperature like hot and cold.

2. Work of sedentary type

3. Heavy physical working

  Thoughts or belief to be removed are

1. Phobia (irrational fear)

2.  Distress (grief)

3. Jealous (covetous)

4. Untimely talk

5. Severe talk

6. Lie (back biting)

7. Illegal liaison

8. Theft

9. Violence

Environment

1. Heat stroke

2. Cold bite

3.  High altitude

4. Deep sea

   Effect of time  

         Ageing

 

 

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Progression of disease
 

(1) Temperature and pressure of fluid surrounding the cell and of cellular fluid is determined by concentration of ions, nutrients, gases and other constituents in the said fluid. Homeostasis of this fluid is maintained by thermoregulation, osmoregulation and glucoregulation system.
Ingestion and excretion both affect the internal environment of cell.
Normal ingestion depends on physiological needs of nutrients and ions. Normal excretion is sweating, micturation and evacuation etc.

(2)
Oblivious or erroneous eating habits and inclination towards overlooking natural impulse of excretion tend to alter concentration of ions, nutrients, gases and other constituents in the fluid of cell and of surrounding the cell.
(3)
Repetitive erroneous eating and overlooking natural impulse increase obligation of osmoregulation, thermoregulation and glucoregulation process.
(4)
Sensor of short term and long term regulation along with afferent pathway and effecter along with efferent pathway of homeostatic feedback loop if constantly agitated, are exhausted.
(5)
When control system of body fail to keep the normal temperature and pressure of internal environment within desirable variables, enzymes denaturized and metabolic pathway could not be completed.
Partial or unfinished metabolic pathways perturb the function of system.
In face of a continuing perturbation, homeostatic responses do not return the regulated variable completely to its original value and this difference is called the error signal.
Activation of error signal impairs the control system.

(6)
The error or gain factor of homeostasis mechanism increase.
     Set point of normal variables are changed.

(7)
The temperature and pressure of internal environment alters. This in turn varies the function of cell.
        Cell are now unable to work properly so is the system of which cell is part of.

 

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Stages of Disease

 

  (1)  Excess or less stores of ions and nutrients in interstitial fluid increase or decrease
    the movements of constituents, ion and nutrients between cell and internal 
    environment. 

   This puts pressure on metabolism in cells. This leads to change in normal composition
   of ion, nutrients and other constituents. 

Though, acute control system of body tries to maintain its normal position.

Repetition of these situations results in inhibition of acute control system of body.
(2)
 Increase or decrease in metabolism and inhibition of acute control system of body disturb osmolarity. This results in change in osmoregulation process of body.
(3)
 As the cell needs static and constant condition to work properly. To regulate the condition, pressure arises on long-term control system of body.
Long-term control systems cannot correct the situation totally, because there remains a gain factor.
Repetitive erroneous habits tend to increases in gain factor that leads to disturbance in normal set point of thermoregulation, osmoregulation and glucoregulation.
This results in disturbance in homeostatic condition.
(4) Disturbance in homeostatic condition alters the functioning of organs. Working pattern of organs get disturbed leads to disease.

 

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Diagnostic approach in naturopathy

 

Diagnosis is a process of acknowledgment of and identification of nature of disease.
Nature of disease is determined by evaluation of patient history, examination, and review of laboratory data.
Outward signs and symptoms of body help to recognize the disease or condition.
Sign is basic element of communication. Sign is a unit, which signifies another unit.
In condition of disease the subcellular changes are reflected in organism as altered function or structure of tissues, organs.
A subcellular change may be of deficiency or excess of certain factor. This deviation is signified as change in normal rapidity of control systems. This is perceived as absence of ease.
When the control systems are without strain and homeostatic condition is maintained properly, cellular function are without perturbation sense of well-being can be sensed.
Sense of well-being is appraised as intake and output consistent to physiological need.
Stimuli of intake are

Breathing

Breathing is act of oxygen intake and exhalation of carbon dioxide.
Nasal breathing is important factor for proper intake of o2.
Pattern of breathing that indicates abnormalcy not emergency are
8 Fast breathing while walking for some distance.
8 Deep breathing off and on.
8 Dyspnea due to non-specific symptoms.
8 Normal breathing interrupted by sudden apnea

Hunger

Intrinsic desire for food is hunger. Type of food preferentially seek is determine by appetite.
A person should eat as per proper hunger.
Sign of food intake without hunger

8 Confined to particular taste
8 Adding flavor to food
8 Likes and dislikes of particular food (quality and quantity)
8 Eating as per schedule
8 Eating again and again
8 Unwholesome food habits i.e. fast food etc

Thirst

Thirst is primary regulators of intake of water. It also regulates sodium concentration and osmolality.
Minimum requirement of daily water is 2.5 to 3 litres for a normal 70kg man.
If loss is not counter balanced in severe condition it produces dehydration.
Ischaemia of the muscles and primary cause of pain in body are due to less intake of water.
Stimuli of excretion are 
Evacuation
Reabsorption properties of mucosa of colon are boon for system but if the matter going through the colon is not available for proper time to reabsorbs or over stayed there then it becomes ban for system.
Normal evacuating habit should be two times bowel habit in space of 24 hours.
Indicative factors of normalcy or abnormalcy are 
8 Consistency of stool
8 Constituency of stool
8
 Smell of stool
8
  Feeling of heaviness even after passing stool.
8 Abdominal bloating
8 Burning sensation
8 Nausea
8 Headache 

Micturation 
Balance of water and electrolytes is role of excreting urine. Kidney regulates the electrolyte and water balance of system.
Indicative factors of normalcy or abnormalcy are 

8 Frequency of urine
8 Color of urine
8 Painful micturation
8 Force of micturation
8 Burning micturation    

Sweating

Sweating is major phenomena for regulation of body temperature. It is cooling system or radiator of body. Core temperature is maintained by sweating. Excess sweating is indication of rising in internal temperature of body. Vasodilatation flushes out the excess heat. Sweating regulates electrolyte imbalance.
Excess sweating or devoid of sweating indicates water, electrolyte imbalance and morphological changes of skin tissue.
Normally sweating is absent in sunstroke and it is obvious after exercise.
Two major contributor of sense of well-being are

Physical work
Musculo-skeletal system has unique character in maintaining homeostatic  condition.
If musculo-skeletal system is not working properly, control systems are disturbed.
Good stamina and health is indicative of proper homeostatic condition. Lethargy, weakness, pain, fatigue, inability of function are indication of disease.

Sleep
During sleep, your body produces valuable hormones, which are important for growth as well as for immune system. Proper sleep helps build muscle mass and repair cells and tissues in children and adults.
Sleep needs fluctuate from person to person. Most adults need 7-8 hours of sleep each night. Newborns, on the other hand, sleep between 16 and 18 hours a day, and children in preschool sleep between 10 and 12 hours a day. School-aged children and teens need at least 9 hours of sleep a night.

The quantity of your sleep count, but the quality of your sleep is essential as well. People whose sleep is interrupted a lot or is discontinue might deprive of health.
We need sleep to think clearly, react quickly, and create memories.
Sleep also affects mood. Insufficient sleep can make you irritable and is linked to poor behavior and trouble with relationships.
People who chronically lack sleep are also more likely to become depressed.
Hormones released during sleep also affect how the body uses energy

 

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